Low Latency 10G
Ethernet IP Solution
The 10Gbps 32-bit Ethernet IP solution
offers a fully integrated IEEE802.3-2015 compliant package for NIC
(Network Interface Card) and Ethernet switching applications. This
extremely low latency solution is specifically targeted for demanding
financial, high frequency trading and HPC applications. As shown in the
figure below, the 10Gbps Ethernet IP includes:
● Low latency MAC; Tx = 50.0ns , Rx = 70.4ns; (32-bit user interface
● Low latency PCS; Tx = 77.1ns , Rx = 121.3ns; (32-bit
user interface mode)
● Flexible 10GBase-R PCS options with XFI interface for direct SFP+/XFP
● Technology dependent transceiver wrapper for Altera and/or Xilinx
● Statistics counter block (for RMON and MIB)
● MDIO and I2C cores for external module and optical module
A complete reference design using a L2 (MAC level) packet
generator/checker is also included to facilitate quick integration of
the Ethernet IP in a user design. A GUI application interacts with the
reference designís hardware elements through a UART interface (a PCIe
option is also available). An application (with optional basic Linux
PCIe driver/API) is also provided for memory mapped read/write access to
the internal registers.
MAC core is designed with 32-bit data path operating at
312.5MHz to take advantage of high performance fabrics of the 28nm and
20nm FPGAs. This implementation approach also delivers industryís lowest
latency and low area footprint.
As the PCS and transceiver wrapper is included with the Ethernet IP
solution, the line side directly connects the 10.3125Gbps FPGA
transceiver to the optical module (SFP+, XFP etc).
Ethernet IP solution implements two user (application) side interfaces.
The register configuration and control port is a 32-bit AXI4-Lite or
Avalon-MM interface. Depending upon the application layer, user can
select a 32-bit @312.5MHz or 64-bit @ 156.25MHz AXI-4 Streaming or
Avalon Streaming bus to interface with the MAC block.
MAC Core Features
● Implements the
full 802.3 specification with preamble/SFD generation, frame padding
generation, CRC generation and checking on transmit and receive
● Implements 802.3bd specification with ability to generate and
recognize PFC pause frames.
● Implements reconciliation sublayer functionality with start and
terminate control characters alignment, error control character and
fault sequence insertion and detection.
● Multiple user interface options for the MAC data path: AXI-4 or Avalon
streaming with 32-bit data path at 312.5MHz or 64-bit data path at
156.25MHz ● PCS layer XGMII interface implemented as 64-bit (single data
rate) SDR interface at 156.25MHz for direct interface to 10GBase-R, XAUI
and RXUAI cores
● Deficit Idle Count (DIC) mechanism to ensure data rates of 10Gbps at
the transmit interface.
● Optional padding of frames if the size of frame is less than 64 bytes.
● Implements fully automated XON and XOFF Pause Frame (802.3 Annex 31A)
generation and termination providing flow control without user
application intervention. Non PFC Mode only.
● Pause frame generation additionally controllable by user application
offering flexible traffic flow control.
● Support for VLAN tagged frames according to IEEE 802.1Q.
● Support any type of Ethernet Frames such as SNAP / LLC, Ethernet
II/DIX or IP traffic.
● Discards frames with mismatching destination address on receive
(except Broadcast and Multicast frames).
● Programmable Promiscuous mode support to omit MAC destination address
checking on receive path.
● Optional multicast address filtering with 64-bit Hash Filtering table
providing imperfect filtering to reduce load on higher layers.
● High speed CRC-32 generation and checking.
● Optional prevention of CRC appending in frame data by MAC to allow CRC
to be pre-embedded in frame data by user application.
● Optional insertion of error control character in transmitted frame
● Optional forwarding of the CRC field to user application interface.
● Programmable frame maximum length providing support for any standard
or proprietary frame length (e.g. 9K-Bytes Jumbo Frames).
● Status signals available with each Frame on the user interface
providing information such as frame length, VLAN frame type indication
and error information.
● Optional padding termination on RX path for NIC applications or
forwarding of unmodified data to the user interface.
● Optional internal XGMII Loop-back.
● Statistics indicators for frame traffic as well as errors (alignment,
CRC, length) and pause frames.
● Altera Avalon or Xilinx AXI4 interface compliant user (FIFO)
● Transmit and Receive FIFOs with configurable depths having a default
depth of 1KB/512B (128 64-bit/32-bit words) each, according to user
interface bus width.
● Implements statistics and event signals providing support for 802.3
basic and mandatory managed objects as well as IETF Management
Information Database (MIB) package (RFC 2665) and Remote Network
Monitoring (RMON) required in SNMP environments.
● For devices without the support for the 10.3125Gbps transceivers,
Ethernet IP solution can be configured to operate with vendor specific
XAUI and RXAUI cores.
PCS Core Features
● Implements 10GBase-R PCS core compliant with IEEE 802.3-2008
● Implements a 64-bit XGMII interface to operate at 156.25MHz for 10G
● Implements 64b/66b encoding/decoding for transmit and receive PCS
using 802.3-2008 specified control codes.
● Implements 10G scrambling/descrambling using 802.3-2008 specified
polynomial 1 + x39 + x58.
● Implements 66-bit block synchronization state machine as specified in
● Implements Inter Packet Gap (IPG) insertion/deletion for clock
compensation while maintaining a minimum of 5 bytes IPG.
● Implements gear-box logic to convert 66-bit blocks to 40-bit for line
side. The 40-bit interface operates at the transceiver reference clock.
There is an option with Xilinx 7-series devices to use the gear-box
logic available in the transceiver. In this case, the gear-box logic in
PCS is bypassed and the 66-bit blocks are presented at line side
operating at the transceiver reference clock.
● Implements Bit Error Rate (BER) monitor for monitoring excessive error
ratio. In addition, the core implements various status and statistics
required by the IEEE 802.3-2008 such as block synchronization status and
test mode error counter.
● Implements optional XGMII remote loopback to loopback data received
from Rx PCS back to Tx PCS.
Licensing and Maintenance
● NO yearly maintenance fees for upgrades and bug fixes
● Basic core licensing for a single vendor (either Xilinx or Altera)
compiled (synthesized netlist) binary
● Other licensing options include:
o Vendor and device family agnostic source code (Verilog) license
o A low cost, board locked license for low budget
prototyping (upgradeable to full license)
The utilization summary of the 10G Ethernet solution is given in
following tables. The utilization numbers are best in class as compared
to other available 10G Ethernet cores with comparable feature set. The
Ethernet solution has been fully verified on different hardware
platforms for both Altera and Xilinx FPGAs and has also been verified
for interoperability with other 10G capable devices.